Photograph by Davis Burroughs Housing
Photograph by Davis Burroughs

If you live in an American city in the 21st century, chances are you’ve encountered the hipster art galleries and artisanal coffee shops that are common hallmarks of gentrification.

This is especially true if you live in Virginia Beach or Richmond, which are two of the most gentrified large cities in the nation, according to a new report from the National Community Reinvestment Coalition.

Virginia Beach had a 17% gentrification rate and was one of 15 cities in the U.S. with the most neighborhoods gentrified. Richmond, meanwhile, had a 16% rate of gentrification and had among the highest rates of displaced black residents due to gentrification, as the city’s black population decreased by 45% from 1990 to 2010.

During that same time period, the city’s population surged by 10%, owing largely due to a 30% increase in the city’s white population.

Locals are understandably concerned, and it remains to be seen what measures local and state governments take to battle gentrification.